58 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION public and private life and respect for property are the positive virtues mainly inculcated: intemperance in eating and drinking, unchastity, slander, sloth, excessive self-confidence, are all con- demned as incompatible with good living. (Virtues conspicuous by their absence are courage, self-sacrifice, intellectual truthful- ness, and the virile qualities generally.) But though the moral aspects of wisdom are most emphasized, there are not wanting suggestions of its intellectual aspects connecting the thought of the writers of the Proverbs in a somewhat remote way with Greek speculation. The Wise Men of Israel were most concerned about the problems of human life, but were not wholly unobservant of nature, especially as providing evidence for providential design. This side of Jewish wisdom appears in one or two passages in the Proverbs. Thus: " The Lord by wisdom founded the earth: By understanding he established the heavens/** Then in the famous passage in the eighth chapter, Wisdom is personified and attributed to the Creator before the world was fashioned. We seem entitled to infer from such passages that the youths who learned the wisdom of the Wise Men might include in their learning some of the rather crude notions about the universe that constituted Jewish science. 2. Throughout the Proverbs it is assumed that education is primarily the business of the parents. The injunction in the first chapter is typical: " My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the teaching of thy mother." The child is regarded as an integral part of the family. A good son is a source of credit to his parents, a bad son a cause of shame. The whole family is implicated in the behaviour of each of its members. But while the father and mother are regarded as the parties directly respon- sible for the upbringing of the child, the book of Proverbs refers also to a group of special teachers—the so-called Wise Men, Who these Wise Men were is not known. Some authorities have identified them with the scribes, but it is not conceivable that the scribes would at any time have ignored the Law as the Wise Men actually do in Proverbs. Perhaps they are best described as practical philosophers whose main concern was with matters of conduct and who were cosmopolitan in their indifference to Jewish, traditions. But for the fact that they were evidently not interested in logical and metaphysical questions, they might be * iii. 10.